Durian (Durio zibethinus) is one of popular local fruits in Malaysia, also known as Raja Buah. Durian fruit is round to oval depending on the variety. Durian rind has sharp thorns and green to brownish-green colour.
Durian fruit is divided into sections, and each section contains some flesh. Durian rind will be discarded after the durian flesh are eaten. One of the major concerns originating from the large consumption of durian is the management of durian rind and waste. Durian fruit consists of its rind (50–60%) and its seed (15–20%), suggesting that it contains a large portion of biowaste (up to 80% of its total mass). Dumping durian rind into garbage causes environmental pollution as it requires a large disposal area, especially in landfill sites.
Since there are limited landfill spaces nowadays, the disposal of durian in landfill to decompose should be avoided. Illegal disposal of durian peel will be prosecuted under Section 71 (1) of the Solid Waste Management and Public Cleansing Act 2007 (Act 627) which is punishable by a maximum fine of RM100,000 or imprisonment not exceeding five years or both if convicted.
When the durian season arrives, the durian rinds are simply dumped in garbage dumps or dumped illegally. This results in a pile of durian rind that will emit a foul odour, become a breeding ground for mosquitoes and rats, and attract flies. It will cause environmental pollution and harm the health of the locals. The durian rind comes in various sizes depending on the variety.
The size variation causes it to take up a lot of space in a trash can or landfill. Even durian rind takes a long time to decompose due to its high cellulose content. The longer the durian rind is left, the more elastic the durian rind becomes, and the more difficult it is to process. Durian rinds with sharp thorns come in various sizes depending on the variety. Some are thin, thick, and even longer in size and some are quite round or oval in shape.
The complex structure of the durian rind which consists of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin makes it recalcitrant to be further processed. A multi-blade durian rind shredder machine (M’SReD) was developed to reduce the size of durian rind. This machine has been developed to break down and loosen the structure of cellulose. In addition, the small-sized durian rind is easy to compost, dried, and can be processed into other high-value products.
Durian rind is a natural source of cellulose and has a potential value to become a biodegradable packaging. With this machine, it can help growers, sellers, and entrepreneurs of durian fruit in managing durian waste. Reducing the size of the durian rind becomes easier and energy and time efficient. The machine is also portable, which is easy to be transported anywhere.
Prof. Ts. Dr. Rosnah Shamsudin
Faculty of Engineering
Date of Input: 27/07/2022 | Updated: 30/07/2022 | asrizam
Office of the Deputy Vice Chancellor (Research and Innovation)
Universiti Putra Malaysia
43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia