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Ultrasensitive Detection of Clenbuterol

Clenbuterol is an antibiotic that is being used as a bronchodilator for breathing disorder. Clenbuterol is also illegally used as a growth enhancer for meat production in poultry industry, wherein the clenbuterol is injected into the muscle and fat tissue of animals. This is illegal as the volume exceeds the standard therapeutic dose of clenbuterol which possess threats to human health as consumer can be exposed to intoxication due to high concentration of clenbuterol in edible tissue. Among athletes, this antibiotic is illegally used above permitted level as muscle enhancer (doping) even though it is harmful and carcinogenic to human.


The present invention relates to an electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of clenbuterol. The electrochemical immunosensor detects clenbuterol in blood, tissue, milk and urine via the interaction of antibody with an antigen. The interaction forms an antigen-antibody complex that is converted into an electric signal that can be processed, recorded and displayed which is correlated with clenbuterol concentration in the tested samples.


The electrochemical immunosensor is screen-printed carbon electrodes which include a counter electrode, a working electrode and a reference electrode. The working electrode is modified with a conductive polymer composite material, wherein the conductive polymer composite material is poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiopene) with graphene oxide or multi-walled carbon nanotube. The combination of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiopene) with graphene oxide or poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiopene) with multi-walled carbon nanotube provides an electrochemical immunosensor with high sensitivity, lower detection limit and increased current response for the detection of clenbuterol.

This invention can be used to monitor the use of antibiotic (clenbuterol) and the residue in live-stock products (i.e. meat, milk) thus benefitting the consumer through healthy food consumption and improve life quality.




  • Simplified immunoassay technique using disposable strip (modified SPCE)
  • Immediate digital results with a simple portable strip reader instrument
  • Suitable for on-site monitoring
  • Qualitative and quantitative analysis
  • Detects antibiotics at low range
  • High sensitivity (LOD = 5 ppb)
  • High accuracy with more than 90% accuracy
  • High selectivity to clenbuterol
  • Produce rapid results (5 minute test)
  • No skilled personnel required


Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yusran Sulaiman


03-9769 6779

Date of Input: 31/03/2020 | Updated: 19/05/2020 | asrizam


Universiti Putra Malaysia
43400 UPM Serdang
Selangor Darul Ehsan