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TTO Talk : Factors Influence Technology Transfer

Commercialisation of R&D output can be important in creating impact from your research outcomes. Translating it from interesting to beneficial to university, community, industry, and nation. The next step in increasing the impact of research output is through the protection, promotion, and commercialization of research output to the industry.  

Technology transfer is the process of sharing intellectual property with others, allowing scientific findings, knowledge, and intellectual property to flow from creators, such as universities and research institutions, to public and private users. The goal of technology transfer is to transform inventions and scientific outcomes into new products and services that benefit society.

There are several success factors of technology transfer that influence intellectual property commmercialisation from universities to industries. Based on Othman 2013, some of the factors are identified below ;

  • TTO Resources - Competencies and Experience of TTO Leader, TTO Managers/Officers, Leadership Skills of TTO Leader
  • Institutional Resources - Committed University Leaders
  • Individual Resources - Types of Researchers, Network and Reputation of Researchers
  • Financial Resources
  • Institutional factors - Strategic R&D&C Focus, Strategic Market Orientation, Strategic Collaboration,
  • Organizational Capabilities - Technology Selection, Technology Marketing, Technology Matching, IP Valuation, Difference of Perceptions/Motivations, Boundary Spanning, Managerial Capabilities,
  • Environmental Factors - R&D Capability of Industry, Venture Capital Market, The Role of Government

Othman 2013, suggests that the existence of several gaps between the five groups of stakeholders of TTO in Malaysia; the researcher, the TTOs, the university managers, the industry, and the government will affect the technology transfer performance.

The researchers of those who empirically demonstrate that the researchers' capacity to leverage their competencies increases entrepreneurial activities in strengthening university-industry collaboration through the creation and application of domain knowledge transfers and spillovers are those who make a valuable contribution to the discourse. Business skills and knowledge are essential for initiating the University-Industry collaboration (Ting et al., 2019)


Innovation Management

Innovation management is a crucial factor in the success of technology transfer. It involves faculty invention disclosures, protecting ideas through patents/copyrights, and licensing inventions to companies. Technology transfer office (TTO) or innovation management office like Putra Science Park, Universiti Putra Malaysia, will facilitate the inventor in terms of technology process, promoting, negotiating.

Universities are fertile ground for intellectual property and inventions that change the way we live. However, even a revolutionary invention isn't enough. Universities and research institutions need help growing and advancing those discoveries to a final product or service.

Successful technology transfer requires collaboration between universities and industry partners. Universities look to existing or start-up businesses to license their IP. Technology transfer enables the commercialization of many new inventions and technologies by industry partners who may further develop, scale up, and bring them to market.

Technology transfer has benefits for universities, companies, regional and national economies, and society at large. For universities, technology transfer may help improve research and the prestige of the institution, its scientists, and its innovations. It may also provide revenue to support existing or new research activities. For companies, benefits include access to new technologies that can improve their products or services

In conclusion, technology transfer is an essential process that allows scientific findings, knowledge, and intellectual property to flow from creators such as universities and research institutions to public and private users. The success factors of technology transfer include innovation management, effective IP management, collaboration between universities and industry partners, human capital aspect, and economic development. These factors are crucial for successful technology transfer that benefits society at large.


by Asrizam Esam
Research Officer
Putra Science Park, UPM



Othman, A., Haiyat, U., & Kohar, A. (2013). University-Industry Technology Commercialization In Malaysia: Opportunities And Challenges

Ting, S. H., Yahya, S., & Tan, C. L. (2019). The influence of researcher competence on university-industry collaboration: The mediating role of domain knowledge transfers and spillovers. Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, 11(2), 277–303.

Date of Input: 22/05/2023 | Updated: 22/05/2023 | asrizam


Universiti Putra Malaysia
43400 UPM Serdang
Selangor Darul Ehsan